CHOP: To cut food into smaller pieces, usually with large knife and cutting board. One hand holds knife tip on the board; the other moves blade up and down, cutting through the food.
CUBE: To cut a solid into little cubes from about 1/2 inch to an inch.
DICE: To cube but to make the cubes smaller - less than 1/2 inch. Use a cutting board and a very sharp knife, or a special cubing gadget.
FLAKE: To break or pull apart a food, like chicken or fish, that divides naturally. All you do is follow these divisions, pulling at them gently with one or two forks. Or flake with your fingers.
GRATE: To tear off coarse-to-fine particles of food with a hand grater or mechanical device.
GRIND: To put food through chopper. Choppers have two or three blades. Use a blade with smaller holes to grind foods fine; one with the larger holes for coarse chopping or grinding.
JULIENNE: To cut potatoes or vegetables into match-like sticks.
MINCE: To cut food in pieces, but finer than chopped. Mincing takes the same steps: Use cutting board and sharp knife, chopping knife and wooden bowl, or scissors - just do it longer.
SHRED: To cut or tear in long, narrow pieces. The fineness varies | kitchen charts often say that foods should be 'finely" or "coarsely " shredded. Use a hand or mechanical shredder; or cut crisp vegetables, like cabbage, to shreds with a sharp knife.
SLIVER: To cut or splinter into long, thin strips, with a sharp knife on a cutting board.