Tabasco chile - The famous chile from Tabasco, Mexico; seeds
were introduced to Louisiana in the 1860s.
Tabasco Sauce - A brand-name very hot red sauce made from hot
ground peppers, fermented and mixed with vinegar. Tabasco Pepper Sauce is made on
Avery Island in Louisiana, United States. This sauce is commonly used with Creole
food, chili con carne and eggs.
Tabbouleh - A Lebanese salad made of softened bulgur tossed
with vegetables and seasoned with lemon and mint.
Table d'hote - [French] meal of a definite number of courses,
selected by the restaurant for a preset price.
Taco - [Mexican] wad or mouthful; fried, toasted or baked tortilla
with filling rolled or folded inside. It has either a soft or crisp fried shell.
Tagine - A Moroccan dish named after the cooking utensil in
which it has been cooked. These stews may contain poultry, fish, meat, or vegetables
and are highly spiced with sweet overtones common in North African cuisine.
Tagliarini - A flat ribbon pasta, narrower than tagliatelle,
measuring approximately 3mm across.
Tagliatelle - [Italian] a flat ribbon pasta, narrower than fettuccine,
measuring approximately 6mm across.
Tahini - A light creamy paste made of toasted sesame seeds and
sesame oil - almost like peanut butter. Used in many Middle Eastern dishes, it can
be found in Middle Eastern delicatessens or larger supermarkets.
Tailgate - (United States) outdoor snack, meal or beverages
originally served from the back of a pick-up truck at any sporting event. Hot food
prepared on the grill at a sporting event.
Taleggio - A square creamy cheese from the Lombardy region of
Italy, with a fat content of almost 50%. Has a mild, salty-sweet flavor, which can
become pungent if left to age for too long.
Tallarines - [Spanish] noodles.
Tallow biscuits - Hot biscuits spread with fresh tallow.
Tamal (tamale) - [Spanish] any filling enclosed in masa, wrapped
in a corn husk or parchment paper, and steamed; the plural is tamales. The cornmeal
is spread on a corn husk, then filled with chile-seasoned mixture of meats and red
pepper, rolled, tied and steamed.
Tamalero - [Spanish] tamale-making party.
Tamarind - This is the very pungent, tart fruit pod of trees
originally from Africa, now common in Asia, India, and the West Indies. The taste
is bittersweet with citrus overtones. The pulp is very sticky and difficult to work
with. Tamarind paste and concentrate, fresh products, are available in the produce
sections of many ethnic markets. They keep for 2-3 weeks, refrigerated. Both products
made from the pulp of the tamarind pod, need to be reconstituted.
Tamarindo - [Spanish] sometimes labeled as Indian dates; a The
pod is bout four inches long; they have a brown papery outer skin that covers the
sticky pulp, fibers and seeds; it makes a wonderful hot weather drink; also great
for sauces and chiles when combined with dried chiles; a primary ingredient in both
Worcestershire and Pick-a-Peppa sauces; also sold in dried bricks with its seeds,
as frozen pulp and puree, and as canned paste; fresh pods can be purchased from
later summer through early spring.
Tangerine - A small orange citrus fruit. What the United States
calls tangerines are called mandarins elsewhere in the world. They are loose-skinned
oranges. The best is the clementine - the small, flattened, seedless fruit that
is easier to peel, has less pith, and is sweeter than all other tangerines.
Tapenade - A paste made from cured black olives seasoned with
olive oil, garlic, anchovies, capers, lemon, and marc or cognac. This is common
in Province, where it is served with croutons and raw vegetables to dip. This also
makes a good sauce for grilled meats and strong flavored fish.
Tapioca - This is a starchy ingredient derived from the cassava
root. Tapioca puddings and custards are made with pearl tapioca, which serves as
a thickening agent. Tapioca comes in several forms, including granules and flour,
as well as the pellets that are called pearl tapioca. Tapioca starch is often used
to make dumpling dough, or as a thickening agent. If necessary, it can be used as
a substitute for cornstarch. Store tapioca in a cool dark place.
Taquito - [Spanish] little taco; rolled, deep-fried taco.
Taramasalata - A Greek dip made of olive oil and fish roe with
the consistency similar to that of mayonnaise. American versions commonly use salmon,
whitefish or carp roe. This is served with raw vegetables and bread or croutons.
Taro - The most flavorful of the "new" tubers sold in many supermarkets
and many Latin American and Asian markets. Treat as a potato, but do not overcook
or it will become dry.
Tart - A sweet- or savory-filled baked pastry with no top crust.
Tartare - This is a term which has several meanings. It is often
used to describe the preparation of raw beef called steak tartare. Raw beef is chopped
finely and served with minced onion, parsley, capers and seasoned with anything
from Worcestershire sauce to Tabasco sauce. Tartare sauce describes a mayonnaise
based sauce with capers, onion, hard cooked eggs, cornichons and herbs.
Tarte Flambe - An Alsatian pizza with a thin crust topped with
fresh white cheese, onions, and bacon. This is also called an Alsatian firepie.
Tarte Tatin - Upside-down apple tart with sugar-and-butter caramelized
topping. Best when served immediately after cooking.
Tartufi - [Italian] truffles.
Taza - [Spanish] cup.
T-bone steak - A cut from the center section of the tenderloin,
directly in front of the porterhouse steak.
Te - [Spanish] tea; usually an herbal tea.
Tea towel - Dish towel.
Teff - a tiny, round grain that flourishes in the highlands
of Ethiopia. While teff is very nutritious, it contains practically no gluten. This
makes teff ill-suited for making raised bread.
Teigemasse - [German] macaroni dishes.
Tejano - [Spanish] Texan; often refers to the early Mexican
settlers in Texas.
Tejolote - [Spanish] pestle used to grind items in a molcajete.
Telera - [Spanish] French roll.
Tembleque - [Spanish] a coconut dessert; a good commercial product
is the Goya brand.
Tempura - Japanese dish of batter-dipped, fried seafood or vegetables.
Tenderloin - That portion of the beef between the sirloin and
the ribs; also known as short loin. Steaks from the tenderloin include the Porterhouse
and the T-bone.
Tenedor - [Spanish] fork.
Tepari - [Spanish] tepary beans.
Tepin - [Spanish] a dried chile; chile tepin; wild form of the
pequin, it grows along the Mexican and U.S. border; round, measuring about 1/2 inch
across; have a searing, dry heat; used in sauces, salsas and stews; Substitute pequ
ns if these are not available.
Tequila - [Spanish] a pale, sharp-tasting liquor distilled from
the agave plant (maguey cactus); the stem of the agave, known also as the century
plant, is used in making tequila; it is produced near Tequila in the state of Jalisco,
Terrine - [French] finely ground meats or fish, etc. See "Pate"
for description; an earthenware pot used in cooking and serving pasta.
Texas butter - A butter substitute of hot lard, flour and water.
Thermophilic - Cheesemaking term which describes the temperature
at which the culture thrives. From the Greek words thermo - meaning heat - and philic
- which means loving. Thermophilic cultures require a higher temperature than mesophilic
Tierno - [Spanish] tender.
Timbale - [French] a molded dish. Also a high-sided pie crust
filled with cooked meat, fish or fruit.
Tinga - [Spanish] stew.
Tipsy cake, tipsy pudding - Sponge cake soaked with sherry and
brandy, covered with custard and almonds.
Tiramisu - An Italian dessert which is very popular in the US.
Tiramiso consists of sponge cake, soaked with an espresso syrup and layered with
a sweetened mascarpone cheese and chocolate sauce.
Toad in the Hole - An English dish consisting of pieces of meat
or sausages covered with batter and baked in the oven.
Toast points - Toast slices, cut in half diagonally.
Toasting (nuts) - Using heat to bring the oils closer to the
surface of the nut which brings out more flavor. Method is useful in low fat cooking
in order to use less nuts. Toasting also makes removing the skins off of nuts easier.
Toasting also gives the nuts a much better flavor.
Tocino - [Spanish] bacon. Cured ham with added color.
Tofu - Also called bean curd, a bland, cheese- or custard-like
food made from processed soy beans. It comes in various degrees of firmness and
is a very high source of protein.
There are two broad categories of tofu - firm tofu and soft (or silken) tofu.
Firm tofu is the more versatile of the two varieties.
Silken tofu is best eaten raw or used in soups, most notably miso soup. Silken
tofu does not stir fry well. Because of its consistency, it will not absorb the
flavors of the meats and vegetables being fried as firm tofu will, and also it tends
Both firm and silken tofus are available in most grocery stores in the vegetable
section. Tofu is like a dairy product in that it must be refrigerated and has a
short shelf life. It is normally sold in plastic tubs, immersed in water. Naturally,
the water should be poured off, the tofu rinsed and patted dry before using. Silken
tofu often comes inside foil packages from Japan. In this case, the silken tofu
is ultra-pasteurized and so has a very long shelf life. Firm tofu is always fresh.
Tofu – fermented soybeans made into a concentrated curd form. Originally from
Japan. Tofu is astringent, sweet, cooling and heavy, Tofu is mild tasting and very
versatile. It will take on the flavors of any food it is cooked with. Tofu is high
in calcium, iron and phosphorus. Good for Kapha, use extra spicing, Vata, should
eat in small quantities because it may cause constipation. Pitta, very good for
strong Pitta and cooling. Tofu should always be prepared by cooking or warming and
needs warming spices cooked with it for easy digestion. Use Cumin and Coriander.
Do not overcook tofu. It should be gently cooked and heated. Eat small quantities
of tofu (3 or 4 ounces) at a time.
Tofu is made from soybean milk mixed with a thickener and pressed to form a block.
Not only is tofu an excellent vegetable protein, but recent discoveries have found
estrogen-like compounds that lower risk in breast and prostrate cancers. By promoting
calcium retention in bones, soybean products lower the risk of osteoporosis.
Soybeans are the perfect food. They contain very little cholesterol and saturated
fats; the fat is mostly unsaturated. Soybeans provide a complete protein, approximately
35% protein, compared to 40% in other legumes. It is high in vitamins A, B1, B2,
E, niacin, calcium, lecithin and mineral salts. It contains amino-acids, such as
linoleic acid, which is one of the Omega-3 fatty acids, helpful in reducing heart
disease. Soybeans contain genistein, a plant-based estrogen known as phytoestrogens,
which helps to blocks the growth of tumors and prevent the growth of cancer. Overall,
soybeans contribute to a healthy diet, rich in nutrients that help in the prevention
of cancer, heart diseases and postmenopausal symptoms.
Tomally - The liver of the lobster.
Tomate - [Spanish] tomato.
Tomate verde - Mexican green tomato.
Tomatillos (tomates verdes) - [Spanish] frescadillas; plum-sized,
bright green fruit, covered with a light green papery husk; they have a citrus-like,
acidic flavor; taste best when they are brilliant green in color; often called green
tomatoes, they are more closely related to the kiwi fruit than to tomatoes, and
are members of the gooseberry family. Also a member of the nightshade family; originally
eaten by the Aztecs; the best substitute is small green tomatoes. If using fresh,
remove the papery husks. Canned are a good substitute, but rinse well before using.
Tomillo - [Spanish] thyme.
Tonno - [Italian] tuna.
Toronja - [Spanish] grapefruit.
Torrejas - [Spanish] egg fritters.
Torrone - Nougat candy.
Torta Rustica - A large pie similar to coulibiac, filled with
salmon, cabbage or spinach, eggs, and mushrooms. Other versions use meat or sausage
in the filling. The crust is usually made of bread dough and sprinkled with salt
Torta - [Italian] tart.
Torta - [Spanish] hero sandwich; often made with a bolillo;
also made with tortillas fried semi-crisp.
Torte - Dessert of the cake or meringue type, usually rich in
eggs or nuts.
Tortellini - A small, stuffed pasta pocket made from little
rounds of dough, then twisted to form dumplings. Fillings can be made with anything
and are served sauced or in a simple broth.
Tortelloni - This is a larger version of the tortellini.
Tortilla - [Latin American] a very thin Mexican bread made of
corn or wheat flour. They are served both soft and fried. A round, flat unleavened
bread made from a dough of wheat flour or corn flour; the staple of all Latin American
Tortilladora - [Spanish] small handcranked machine for making
Tortilleria - [Spanish] establishment where tortillas are made
Tostada - [Spanish] corn tortilla fried crisp and garnished.
Tostados - [Spanish] fried corn tortillas with toppings; bowls
made by frying corn and flour tortillas in a tostado fryer.
Tostones - [Spanish] fried plantain slices.
Totopos, tostaditas - [Spanish] southern Mexican term for tortilla
Tournedo - A fillet of beef from the heart of the tenderloin,
approximately an inch thick. This term is rarely used in America today, being replaced
by filet of beef or filet mignon.
Tourte - Similar to pate en croute, these are pies made in a
round shape and served cold. They are generally highly seasoned and preparations
are indicative to the region they are from.
Treacle - [Great Britain] Molasses.
Trennette - Flat noodles, wider than fettuccine, that have one
flat edge and one scalloped edge.
Trigo - [Spanish] wheat.
Tripe - linings of the first and second stomach of a cow or
ox; it is the main ingredient of traditional menudo.
Truchas - [Spanish] freshwater trout.
Truffle - This is a tuber of unusual flavor and aroma. It is
savored in Italian and French cookery, and due to its scarcity, draws a very high
price. The truffle has yet to be successfully cultivated, though a fine substitute
is now being grown in California. The black truffle of Perigord and the white truffle
of Piedmont are highly prized for their exceptional flavors. The black truffle requires
cooking to allow the flavors to be fully achieved. Conversely, the white truffle
is best when shaved directly on the dish before eating. The aroma of truffles is
strong enough to permeate egg shells when the two are stored together. Due to their
short growing season and large demand, truffles can reach a price of up to $800
per pound. Frozen and canned forms are more accessible, but their taste never reaches
that of fresh truffles. Also, a very rich chocolate candy.
Truite - French - trout
Truss - To tie up, as a bird, so that all parts will remain
in place while cooking.
Try out - To heat fat slowly until it liquefies and can be drawn
TSP or TVP - Textured soy protein (TSP) or (TVP) is made from
defatted soy flour that is compressed and processed into granules or chunks. It
is sold as a dried, granular product. When it is rehydrated with boiling water,
TSP has a texture similar to ground beef. TSP is also available in chunk-size pieces
that take on the consistency of stew meat when rehydrated. It is available in bulk
in specialty markets and health food stores.
TSP is packaged under various brand names at higher prices in most health food
stores. If you purchase the prepackaged variety, note the added sodium content and
adjust the recipe accordingly. TSP is also available in rehydrated form in the frozen
foods section of many grocery stores under brand names such as Green Giant Recipe
Crumbles. One cup of dehydrated TSP is about two cups rehydrated.
Tube pan - Ring-shaped tin for baking cakes. Most often used
to prepare sponge cakes and angel food cakes.
Tuiles - Crisp, paper thin cookies named for their tile-like
appearance. They are often flavored with almond slices, lemon, and vanilla.
Tumeric - A bright yellow spice used primarily in commercial
curry powder. It is also used in sweet pickles and for various dishes requiring
a yellow color. This is used as a coloring substitute for saffron.
Tuna - An excellent steak fish (and the most popular canned
fish), with tender, flaky, and highly flavorful flesh; Look for bluefin but settle
for yellowfin if need be.
Tunas - [Spanish] prickly pear cactus fruits which turn from
green to ruby red; their juice is magenta-colored; their exotic flavor is like a
blend of pomegranates, cherries and strawberries; the fruit is used in making jelly,
candies and syrup.
Tunken - [German] sauces.
Turducken - A Louisiana specialty - a chicken stuffed inside
a duck stuffed inside a turkey.
Turmeric - [Indian] a rhizome that is dried and ground, then
utilized to spice and color dishes bright yellow. Primarily used in Indian and Southeast
Turnip - A root vegetable with a sharp flavor that mellows and
sweetens when cooked.
Turnovers - Pastries filled with a savory or sweet mixture,
doubled over to the shape of a semicircle, then baked or deep-fried.
Turque - [Spanish] turkey.
Tutti Frutti - [Italian] Dried mixed fruits as added to ice
Tzatziki Sauce - Dipping sauce derived from yogurt, garlic,
cucumber, olive oil and lemon juice. Served with calamari.
Tzimmes - Traditionally served on Rosh Hashana, this sweet Jewish
dish consists of various combinations of fruits, meat and vegetables. All are flavored
with honey and often with cinnamon as well. The flavors of this casserole-style
dish develop by cooking it at a very low temperature for a very long time.